Diseases

Causes of papillomas

The causes of papillomas are those factors that are the basis of the disease, the causative agent and the damaging factor when HPV is introduced into the body. Human papillomavirus is an infectious pathology, which is expressed externally in the appearance of various neoplasms on the skin surface. Such tumors may differ in size, color, shape, location in the body, due to the existence of about 100 strains of the HPV virus.

This viral disease is highly contagious. According to statistics, in the modern world, about 70% of the population suffers from various strains of HPV.

Etiology of the disease

The concept of human papillomavirus combines a variety of microorganisms with viral nature. Some varieties or strains of HPV are completely safe for human health, others can pose both a small and high oncogenic danger to human health.

The fact is that a number of HPV strains, when released into the human body, can penetrate into the basal cell structure, which underlies the epidermis, as well as into the cellular structure of the mucous membranes. When this happens, the virus gradually penetrates into the chromosomal structure, which leads to its violation. After activating the process of cell division in the affected areas of the skin or mucous membranes, various neoplasms arise that are dangerous in their ability to degenerate into cancer in some cases. Approximately 80% of all existing HPV strains possess oncogenicity.

All pathogens are conventionally divided into non-oncogenic strains (1, 2, 3, 5, 53), strains with low oncogenic risk (6, 11, 42-44), strains with an average risk of carcinogenicity (31, 33, 35, 51, 52 , 58), high oncogenic species (16, 18, 45, 56). The most dangerous are the last two types of strains, because they provoke oncology with a high degree of probability, affecting most often the human reproductive system.

The very presence of a highly oncogenic strain in the human body is not a sentence, because even in this case, doctors speak only about the risk of developing the disease, but not about its mandatory occurrence. However, HPV requires increased attention and timely treatment for medical care in order to avoid situations in which the patient discovers tumors in himself but doesn’t react to him, then injures him accidentally, thereby causing the benign papilloma to degenerate into a malignant tumor, which already becomes cured not easy at all.

It is the human papillomavirus that causes cervical cancer, sometimes it also provokes breast cancer in women. This dependence of oncological processes on HPV is in the process of studying and it is possible that specialists will establish a connection between the virus and other forms of oncological pathologies.

Ways of transmission

Sexual way

The most common route of infection with the papilloma virus is sexual contact with the carrier of the disease. Any contact (oral, vaginal, anal) in an unprotected form can lead to infection. The risk of morbidity increases in direct proportion to the number of sexual partners.

The transmission of the disease to other people is more likely if there are already easily injured pointed condylomas on the body. However, even if there are no external signs of the disease, the papillomavirus carrier is a source of infection for all others, with which it enters into sexual relations. At the same time, both high-oncogenic and completely safe viruses are sexually transmitted with the same degree of probability.

Household way

The risk of papillomavirus infection also exists in the domestic environment, since the virus is tenacious for some time and in the external environment. Infection can occur when sharing personal care products with an infected person, taking a shower, bath, or going to the pool and public toilet. For the virus to enter the body, the smallest dermal damage is sufficient.

It is also quite possible to self-infection by this infection in the process of shaving, various hygienic procedures, provoking cuts, scratches, abrasions on the surface of the skin. A person independently transfers the virus from an infected area to a healthy one.

There are a number of opinions among researchers that HPV can be transmitted even by airborne droplets, but to date this theory has not yet been proven.

Intrauterine path

You can get HPV during pregnancy and childbirth. In this case, the newborn forms papillomas on the mucous membranes of the mouth, genitals, and throat. HPV does not adversely affect the intrauterine formation of a human embryo, but can be transmitted from mother to fetus during childbirth, causing papillomatosis of the larynx of the child. However, this infection becomes possible only if the mother has warts located on the cervix or in the vagina.

If the mother's papillomas are localized on the external surface of the genitals, the risk of infection of the fetus is minimized.

Laryngeal papillomatosis in a newborn provokes the appearance of tumors in the mucous membranes of the trachea, throat, and vocal cords, leading to a breakdown of the function of breathing and hoarseness in the voice. This disease occurs chronically, gradually spreading to the bronchus, and in severe cases provokes asphyxia.

Also during childbirth, you can infect a child through hands or medical instruments. Infection is possible in the first days of life when in contact with the mother, breastfeeding. If at the same time there are any minute damage to the skin or mucous membrane, the risk of infection increases.

The most dangerous is the initial infection of HPV during pregnancy. At the same time, the female body does not have protective antibodies, and the immunity is often too weak to fight the virus, which allows HPV to progress actively, damaging the child in utero and causing the occurrence of genital neoplasms.

Development mechanism

Infection with weakened immunity

The cause of infection with papillomavirus may be a weakened by other diseases immunity, alcohol abuse, smoking, emotional instability, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, influenza. That is why the detection of papillomavirus immunity is a top priority. Pathology becomes active only with weak protective functions of the human body. Healthy people rarely suffer from the appearance of tumors and papillomas.

The main feature of HPV is the fact that a virus can have a very latent form and only with the development of some disease can it begin to actively develop. In the normal state at the moment of infection in the human body, the immune system begins to actively fight against it and, preventing the occurrence of papillomas, destroys the virus.

With reduced immunity, a situation may arise when the body becomes a carrier of HPV, and after a long time, the body begins to form papillomas.

Psychological reasons

The science of psychosomatics explains the occurrence of benign and malignant tumors by the same psychological causes, among which are:

  • old wounds from deep insults due to which a person torments himself and pumps indignation and offense in himself;
  • hate yourself or others;
  • severe irritation, anger or annoyance.

If there is an increase in body temperature with HPV, then this symptom reflects a person’s readiness to fight for a positive attitude in life.

Also, psychosomatics traces the relationship between the causes of papillomas and their place of origin. For example, a person demonstrates a person’s personality for the surrounding world, therefore, when manifestations of HPV occur on the face, it can be concluded that illusion crashes, leading to chronic depression, sadness. At the same time, psychosomatics explains the dislocation of papillomas by the fact that:

  • if you disrespect yourself, a person gives a signal to his own skin and that contributes to the formation of papillomas in those places that most clearly characterize the patient's personality;
  • Every part of the body where papillomas can occur is responsible for a certain sphere of life from the point of view of psychosomatics, therefore the appearance of tumors indicates problems in certain spheres of a person.

Papillomas occur in people only when they are covered with total dislike for their own person. If you believe in your beauty, both inside and outside, troubles with appearance in the form of formations can be avoided. There is also evidence of traditional medicine, which is based on the fact that during periods of stress, depression and apathy in humans, protective functions are reduced, which means that the risk of developing HPV increases many times over.

Mechanisms of damage to the reproductive system

Female genitals

The causes of genital warts, which usually affect the genitals, are papillomaviruses that enter the woman's body.

You can encounter such viruses at any time during your life, but after the onset of sexual activity, the risk of developing HPV increases.

At the same time, in a healthy organism, the virus can suppress strong immunity, but when the protective forces are weakened, condylomas are formed very quickly. There are several reasons for this in the female body:

  • a change in the hormonal background, which in women happens all the time and depends not only on some serious health problems, but also on fatigue, the menstrual cycle, pregnancy;
  • any chronic diseases, including cervical erosion, especially with concomitant genital infections in the acute or chronic stage (candidiasis, chlamydia);
  • diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and those that affect the metabolic processes in the body;
  • maintaining a wrong lifestyle, which leads to an undermining of immunity, including low physical exertion, sedentary lifestyle.

A huge impact on the occurrence of HPV in the genitals of women is played by promiscuous sex with a large number of partners and unprotected acts. Not only does the risk of a collision with an infected person increase, but also a negative effect on immunity.

Male genitals

The appearance of HPV manifestations in the male penis indicates the presence of viral cells in the body, which have penetrated the epithelium through microcracks on the mucous membrane of the penis. Most often the infection occurs through sex, sometimes it can be infected in everyday life. Infection will occur for sure if:

  • men often change partners for sex;
  • man prefers unprotected sex;
  • a man often goes to public baths, swimming pools, showers;
  • people use personal hygiene items together, and among them is the carrier of the infection.

After the HPV is introduced into the body, the man becomes its carrier and spreads the virus, even unaware of its existence. At one point, papillomas may begin to form, since the man suffers from chronic diseases or he has pathologies of the genitourinary system; the body is often subjected to hypothermia and various colds, often there are intoxication processes provoked by taking certain medications. Bad habits stimulate the growth of papillomas - smoking, alcoholism, as well as constant stress and poor nutrition. The reasons for the active growth of papillomas are immunodeficiency states and hormonal disorders.

The body's defenses are reduced, allowing HPV to easily penetrate, multiply and mutate inside the body, freely changing the cellular structure of epithelial tissue.

Affection of the intestine and oral cavity

The causative agent of various neoplasms in the intestinal area is HPV, which enters the body in numerous ways and manifests itself in certain circumstances. The patient may not know about his infection for a long time, however, he actively spreads the infection.

Some experts believe intestinal papillomatosis congenital pathology, others cite many causes of this disease, including:

  • virus provocateur, transmitted by household or sexual ways;
  • promiscuous sex without the use of barrier protection (condom);
  • infection of the fetus in the birth canal;
  • the presence of harmful habits that reduce immunity (smoking, alcoholism, drug addiction);
  • constant stress, bad for health;
  • unhealthy diet with a predominance of spicy, fatty, fried, salty foods, provoking the majority of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • inflammatory processes in the rectal area;
  • injuries or microcracks on the mucous membranes of the body, aggravated by poor hygiene.

When papillomas occur in the mouth, on the palate or on the gums, the person experiences severe discomfort. The tumor is palpable, so it can not be overlooked. Immediately after detection, consultation with a dermatologist is required.

The causes of papillomas in the mouth are the same as in other parts of the body. The risk of infection increases when using other people's hygiene products, towels, washcloths, if you do not wash your hands before meals, eat from common utensils, lead an active sex life without protective equipment. The vast majority of HPV carriers learn about their own status, only when they pass tests.

Papillomas in the oral cavity occur only when hormonal changes and weakening of immunity, which can be the result of prolonged illness, old age, pregnancy, metabolic disorders, long stresses, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. The presence of risk factors do not guarantee the development of infection, but they require urgent measures to restore immunity. Often papillomas in the oral cavity are formed in children. This is due to the fact that babies often try dirty objects on a tooth, not complying with hygienic rules, or they are infected with a virus in the mother's birth canal. When infected during the passage of the birth canal papillomas in the mouth are formed in infancy. They carry a risk because they are able, expanding, to close the airways and cause asphyxiation.

Skin lesions

Skin manifestations in the form of papillomas indicate activation of the virus in the human body. Papillomas on the skin activate their growth with reduced immunity, chronic depressions, alcoholism, tobacco smoking, diseases of the digestive tract, prolonged use of antibacterial drugs, oral contraceptives, corticosteroids, frequent infections of the respiratory tract, obtained chemotherapy, when taking immunosuppressants or cytostatitis, or cytostatitis, or cytostatitis, or cytostatitis, frequent infections of the respiratory tract, received chemotherapy, while taking immunosuppressants or cytostatic drugs.

The appearance of papillomas on the skin of the body due to excessive sweating is more characteristic of obese and full people.

Women develop papillomas in the area under the breast, on the back or abdomen, and in men in the groin area. At the same time, the age of the patient does not matter - the papillomavirus can manifest itself as in an adult, elderly, young man, and in a small child.Different zones of skin tumors also depend on the type of papillomavirus provoking them, since condylomas, for example, are formed only on the genitals, and plantar warts, respectively, on the soles.

Article author:
Furmanova Elena Alexandrovna

Specialty: pediatrician, infectious diseases specialist, allergist-immunologist.

Total experience: 7 years.

Education: 2010, SSMU, pediatric, pediatrics.

Experience infectious diseases more than 3 years.

He has a patent on the topic “A method for predicting a high risk of the formation of a chronic pathology of the adeno-tonsillar system in frequently ill children”. As well as the author of publications in the journals VAK.

Other author articles

Watch the video: Human Papillomavirus. HPV. Nucleus Health (January 2020).

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