Condyloma, papilloma or wart are not only cosmetic defects that occur on the human body, but also dangerous neoplasms caused by a hidden virus. These growths appear on the skin if the human papillomavirus (abbreviated HPV) is present in the body. The infection is very easily transmitted and no one is immune from infection. In order to determine whether a person has this infection, it should be examined for HPV.
Features of human papillomavirus
Human papillomavirus infected almost 80% of people on the planet. You can become infected in everyday life, during childbirth (the child becomes infected) and during intimate intimacy. After entering the body, HPV reunites with DNA cells, as a result of which papillomas appear on the skin. If infection occurs with a particular type of infection, the neoplasm can cause oncology.
The most dangerous is HPV 16 (leads to cervical cancer and problems with the genitals in 50% of cases) and 18 (negatively affects the intimate organs in 10% of cases and provokes the occurrence and growth of cancerous tumors) type.
Infection can "dwell" in the human body is completely asymptomatic. If immunity is in order, then the virus will be in hibernation for a long period of time. With ongoing infectious and inflammatory processes, stressful situations, the constant intake of alcoholic beverages, smoking, the use of narcotic drugs, HPV can be activated and begin to negatively affect DNA and the body as a whole.
Indications for HPV screening
The appearance of warts, condylomas, papillomas and growths on the skin are the primary indications that may indicate HPV in the body and require an early examination. A dermatologist, after examining and finding incomprehensible etymology on the body of the neoplasm, refers the patient to the diagnosis and blood donation for the human papillomavirus. It is very important to determine the type of infection, since some of them are considered completely harmless, while others are considered deadly.
An important indication for the analysis is pregnancy planning. You also need to be examined in identifying female and male infertility, pathological processes in the body, miscarriages. Both partners should be examined, because the infection is transmitted during sexual intercourse.
There are about 100 types of virus, about 35-40 of them affect the anus and intimate organs. Human papillomavirus is conditionally divided into 3 groups: a high risk of getting cancer is in people who have found the 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58-59, 68 types; 6, 11, 42-44 types have a low degree of risk; 1-3 and 5 types of HPV are considered not oncogenic.
When vaccinating against types 6, 11, 16 and 18, the patient can prevent the development of acute condylomas, tumors in the cervix, and laryngeal papillomatosis. For preventive purposes, women undergo screening to reduce the risk of cervical disease.
Genetically, the infection is not transmitted, it can only be infected if the hygiene rules are not followed, disregard of the use of contraceptives, and a reduced immune system. Harmful habits, such as smoking, the frequent use of alcohol and psychotropic drugs, negatively affect the body and make it more vulnerable to various viruses and infections.
In modern medicine, there are several effective examinations of human papillomavirus. With their help, you can determine the presence of infection and find out the type of HPV. The attending physician, dermatologist, gynecologist or urologist will refer you for examination of the papillomavirus.
The most common tests for HPV are:
- histological diagnosis;
- cytological examination;
- amplification and non-amplification test;
- detection of antibodies to HPV.
Colposcopy is prescribed to women in order to detect papillomas localized in the cervix. Diagnosis is considered simple and carried out with the help of special equipment - a microscope. Doctor examines the mucous membrane of the vagina and cervix. Colposcopy allows you to examine the organs in multiple magnification. The duration of the procedure varies from 10 to 30 minutes. The doctor gives the results on his hands 10-15 minutes after the examination.
Histological diagnosis is almost always assigned in conjunction with cytological analyzes. With this study, a small biopsy is tested - a small piece of tissue. A biomaterial is placed under the microscope and the affected cells are evaluated. The histological method allows to determine the malignant or benign formation. The duration of the manipulation takes no more than 15 minutes. The patient can receive the results in 2-3 days after the examination. Most often, after histology, the patient is sent to a non-amplification test or PCR study.
To conduct a cytological examination, the doctor produces a biomaterial intake. This sample is a smear with skin cells. The resulting material is examined under a microscope. Using this analysis, you can see mutated cells and tissues that indicate HPV. The technique is simple and not expensive, but at the same time it often shows a false-negative result. The blank with the result is given to the patient in 4-6 days.
Amplification test in modern traditional medicine is considered accurate because it shows the type of infection and its carcinogenicity. The intake is made from the urinary canal or the mucous membrane of the vagina. This analysis is often prescribed by a gynecologist in conjunction with a cytological diagnosis.
PCR analysis is used to determine the oncogenicity of growth or papilloma. The biomaterial is urine, blood plasma, a smear from the mucous surface or amniotic fluid. The accuracy of the survey is close to one hundred percent. Detect human papillomavirus can be even with a small concentration of infection in the blood. With proper collection of the biomaterial and accurate decoding of the results, it is possible only 1-2 days after the manipulation to know for sure whether there is an HPV or not.
Some patients are surprised when the test result is “positive”, but there is no condyloma on the body. This indicates that there is an infection in the body, but the immune system in every way restrains it. Doctors recommend under a "positive" result to undergo a course of treatment, and in the presence of papillomas, remove them with a laser or other means.
Preparation and conduct of the survey
Screening for human papillomavirus is very simple, does not bring pain and is not traumatic. During the procedure, a sample is taken from the urinary canal or vagina, so the patient must first prepare for it. A few days before the study, a woman should temporarily stop the use of antiviral and antibacterial drugs, and also not use intimate hygiene products.
6-8 hours before the material is collected, it is necessary to stop the hygienic procedures, and a few hours before the manipulation you should refrain from urinating. For women, the study is conducted on the 5-6 day of the menstrual cycle, so that no foreign matter appears in the analysis.
Medications, such as birth control pills, ointments, gels, and other medications, should be stopped for 2–3 days before the examination. It is advisable to take a blood test on an empty stomach, therefore, you can not drink and eat 8-10 hours before the manipulation. 2-3 days before the study, men and women should refuse to have sex.
The biomaterial is taken with a soft brush, something similar to a ruff. The specialist inserts it into the urethra and slowly removes it in a rotating motion. A small amount of epithelium remains on the brush. The resulting biomaterial is placed in a sterile container and sent to the laboratory. Deciphering the results deals with the attending doctor. You should not independently find out if there is an infection in the body or not.
One of the worst dangers of HPV for men is the proliferation of growths in the urethra, which can cause serious diseases: impotence; infertility; oncology. Early diagnosis of papillomavirus can reduce the risk of malignant tumors.