With the advent of the first warm days, many different insects wake up. And some of them are far from being as harmless as they seem. Wasps, bees, spiders, ticks - these little bugs sometimes do much more harm than big animals. Such insects are terrible, first of all, because when they bite, they release a certain dose of poison into the human body, which in turn causes most allergic reactions of varying severity.
If urban residents think that modern cities can protect them from insects, then they are deeply mistaken. However, in urban conditions it is much easier to consult a doctor at the first sign of a bite, but in nature it is quite problematic to do this. Therefore, you need to know how to help a bitten person.
Most often, small children suffer from insect bites, as well as those people who are prone to allergies. The most scary are bites in the head, neck and chest area. In some particularly severe cases, when an insect bites, a serious allergic reaction develops - anaphylactic shock. Therefore, it is extremely important to know how to behave in such a situation and what to do before the ambulance arrives.
What to do if a wasp stings or a spider bites? What measures should be taken? How to provide first aid to a bitten person? You can find answers to these and other questions by reading the following article.
Actions with a bite of a wasp, hornet, bumblebee or bee
In the venom of such insects contain biogenic amines, the entry of which into the human blood can cause the strongest allergic reactions.
The most common symptoms for bites of bees, hornets, bumblebees or wasps are itching and burning at the site of the bite, acute pain, redness and swelling of the tissues. In some cases, there is an increase in body temperature, slight chills, general weakness, malaise. The occurrence of nausea and vomiting is likely.
In especially severe cases, especially in people predisposed to allergies, various allergic reactions can occur. From lungs - urticaria and itching, to severe ones - Quincke's edema, anaphylactic shock.
First of all, you need to know what in no case should be done. Firstly, it should be understood that combing the tissues in the bite area can lead to further spread of the poison, and thus it is very easy to bring an infection into the wound, which will only aggravate the situation and lead to serious consequences.
Secondly, you can not use water from nearby natural sources to cool or rinse the wound, since in most cases this leads to infection and sometimes to tetanus infection.
Also, alcohol and sleeping pills should not be taken, because their effect enhances the effect of the poison.
First aid for bites of such insects includes:
- Disinfection of the affected area with alcohol, soapy water or chlorhexidine.
- Cooling the bite with ice wrapped in a towel, spray-freeze or cold pack. Such actions will help relieve swelling and reduce pain.
- Taking an antihistamine, as well as using an anti-allergic ointment or cream.
- Providing the victim with plenty of drink and complete rest.
When a bee bites, you can try to pull out the sting, grabbing it with tweezers as close as possible to the skin. If it was not possible to pull it out, or it is scary to do it, then it is necessary to contact the nearest emergency room to retrieve it.
Tick bite actions
Ticks are quite dangerous parasites, since they can carry terrible and serious diseases: Lyme disease, Marseille tick fever, tick-borne encephalitis. In addition, eats up under the human skin, mites release anesthetic substances into the bloodstream, which allows them to remain unnoticed for a long time. However, there are also situations when a tick bite causes severe swelling and allergic reactions, not excluding anaphylactic shock.
It should be remembered that the diseases that carry ticks cause severe and unpleasant complications, resulting in disability. Therefore, the extracted tick must be taken to the laboratory for analysis.
First aid for tick bites:
- If a tick is found under the skin, it is urgent to visit a surgeon to extract the tick in the most and most safe way.
- In the case when contacting a specialist is not possible, you should remove the tick yourself. To do this, use special forceps, which, following the instructions, will remove the insect without the risk of breaking it into several parts.
- Be sure to treat the affected area with any antiseptic drug: alcohol, chlorhexidine, iodine, hydrogen peroxide.
- The extracted insect must be placed in a glass container filled with cotton wool soaked in water. Close the container tightly with a lid and take it to the laboratory within two to three days after the bite.
In addition, you should know exactly what actions can not be performed with tick bites:
- use improvised means to remove the tick from under the skin (needles, tweezers, pins, and others), since the insect may not be completely removed, which will cause subsequent suppuration of the bite;
- cauterize the insect, since such actions will lead to the opposite effect and the tick will penetrate even deeper under the skin;
- crush an insect, because in this case, possible pathogens that it suffers, can get into the bloodstream and lead to infection;
- lubricate the site of the bite with fats (kerosene, oil and others), as this will lead to the fact that the tick suffocates without oxygen, before it has time to get out.
Actions with a bite of spiders
Any spiders are usually poisonous. In the world there are a great many varieties of arachnids and some of them are even deadly. But the most common spiders are poison which is not very toxic, and its amount is very small in order to provoke the occurrence of severe symptoms of poisoning.
In our latitudes, the most dangerous arachnids are karakurt and tarantulas.
Karakurts are rather small, up to two centimeters in length, black spiders with red spots on the abdomen.
Tarantulas are black or dark brown spiders, usually three to four centimeters in length. However, some individuals can reach twelve centimeters. The most characteristic feature of the tarantula are the hairs covering its entire surface. Moreover, due to their more formidable appearance, tarantulas cause more fear than karakurt, but their bite does not pose a serious danger. A karakurt bite is much more dangerous. But at the same time, you should know that just like that, spiders do not attack a person, but bite only if they are disturbed, in order to protect themselves.
The spider bite itself is almost painless, and the first symptoms appear only after a few hours. These include:
- dizziness and general weakness;
- shortness of breath and palpitations;
- redness and slight swelling at the site of the bite;
- an hour after the bite, there is severe pain spreading to the lower back, shoulder blades, abdomen and calf muscles;
- shortness of breath, nausea, and vomiting;
- convulsive seizures;
- increase in body temperature to forty degrees;
- high blood pressure.
In especially severe cases, sudden changes in the emotional state occur - from depression to overexcitation, severe cramps, severe shortness of breath and pulmonary edema appear. Three to five days after the bite of a karakurt, a skin rash appears, and weakness and general discomfort are observed for several weeks.
The poison of a tarantula is much weaker, and it is manifested by swelling and swelling at the site of the bite, redness of the skin, weakness and drowsiness, apathy, slight pain and heaviness throughout the body.
After a few days, all the symptoms go away.
First aid for the bite of any spider:
- Treat the bite site with an antiseptic.
- Lay and cover the victim, warm him and ensure complete peace.
- Drink painkillers.
- Drink plenty of water
- When a limb bites, it should be bandaged tightly, starting at a distance of five centimeters above the bite, and ensure its immobility. When swelling increases, the dressing should be loosened. The limb must be fixed below the level of the heart.
- If the bite occurred in the neck or head, then the bite should be pressed down.
- Seek medical attention immediately.
- In serious condition, if it is impossible to show the injured to the doctor, it is necessary to give a hormonal anti-inflammatory drug.
What can not be done with spider bites:
- scratching or rubbing the bite, as this leads to the further spread of the poison and contributes to the occurrence of infection;
- make incisions in the bite area;
- cauterize a bitten place;
- suck out the poison, because through any even the smallest wound in the mouth, the poison enters the human blood.
First aid for anaphylaxis
In especially severe cases, insect bites can develop a serious allergic reaction - anaphylactic shock. This reaction is terrible in that it arises and develops quickly enough - within a few minutes. The most prone to anaphylaxis are people who are prone to allergies, as well as asthmatics.
Symptoms of anaphylaxis with the bite of spiders or other insects:
- strong and sharp pain in the bite;
- itchy skin transmitted to all parts of the body;
- rapid and labored breathing, shortness of breath;
- pronounced pallor of the skin;
- weakness, a sharp decrease in blood pressure, up to a loss of consciousness;
- abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting;
- circulatory disturbance in the brain, clouding of consciousness;
- severe swelling of the oral cavity, neck and larynx.
All these reactions develop within a few minutes, and as a result of impaired respiratory activity and blood circulation, death from oxygen deficiency can occur. Therefore, it is very important to know how to provide first aid to a person with anaphylactic shock. Such actions can save his life.
First aid for anaphylaxis:
- Immediately call an emergency ambulance by calling 103 or 112.
- To give the victim a horizontal position and raise his legs.
- Cool the bite site.
- In case of loss of consciousness, it is necessary to control the breathing of the victim every two minutes.
- With ineffective breathing (in an adult there are less than two breaths in ten seconds, in a child less than three), cardiopulmonary resuscitation must be performed.
- Give the victim antihistamines: Suprastin, Tavegil and others.
The bites of any insect almost always entail unpleasant and negative consequences, most often expressed in allergic reactions. Their children, people suffering from bronchial asthma, as well as those who are prone to allergies are especially hard on them. In some cases, even severe conditions such as anaphylactic shock, the delay in which can cost the affected person life can occur. Therefore, it is extremely important to know what to do in such cases and to be able to provide first aid for bites of various kinds of insects in order to help a person wait for the arrival of the doctor. In some cases, especially with anaphylaxis, such actions can save the victim's life.