The need to service patients after surgery and people suffering from urinary incontinence necessitated the development of a huge number of types and types of urinals that can be used in each specific situation.
The urinal itself is a urine collection device that connects to a catheter or uroreservative. Externally, it is a bag equipped with a drainage hole for emptying.
Urinals are used for continuous urine intake in patients who are not able to independently control the act of urination in bedridden patients, and in addition, for urine collection for analysis.
Types of urinals
There are many classifications of urinals, based on different criteria.
Thus, by the number of uses, urinals are divided into disposable and reusable. Depending on the gender of the patient, they are male and female. Depending on the device, the devices are divided into bedside, foot (portable) and children's. There is also a classification according to the method of elimination of urine: devices are divided into drained and non-drained. By their structure, the devices are divided into one-, two-and three-component.
Disposable urinals are intended to be used only once. They are usually made from a material that cannot be sterilized (for example, paper). In addition, devices can be disposable if the features of their structure make reuse inappropriate (for example, polyvinyl chloride urinals with valves).
Reusable urinals are systems that are made from a material that can be sterilized. It can be metal, glass, latex or plastic. Most often, in this case we are talking about bedside devices, which are usually used in hospitals. After they undergo the sterilization procedure, they can be used in different patients. Urinals made of latex and other polymers can be used for repeated use by the same patient as individual reusable products.
The form factor of male urinals is dictated by the anatomical features of the reproductive system of the stronger sex. This can be either a duck-type urinal, which is equipped with an elongated neck, or portable disposable systems with uroreserves that help to fix them.
The shape of female urinals is also dictated by the need for maximum adhesion to the skin. If reusable is necessary, a vessel with a wide opening, resembling a plate, or a “duck”, the neck of which is made in the form of a “willow leaf”, is usually used. Disposable systems have a wide ring with a valve that is designed to control the backflow of urine.
One-component urinals are a bag that is equipped with a special adhesive-based plate so that the device can be fixed to the skin.
Two-component urinals are a removable urine bag that is attached to a catheter or uroreservative.
The structure of the three-component urinal includes a bag, a drainage tube and an antireflux valve equipped with an opening for sampling urine.
Drained urinals have a special tube that allows you to display the contents that have accumulated in the receiving bag. In order to remove the contents of the non-draining urinal, the bag is disconnected from the catheter or uroreservation.
In stationary conditions, to ensure the comfort of patients who are bedridden, bedside urinals are used. At present, two types of this device are most widely used: standard and deluxe (advanced).
The upgraded instrument kit contains mounting devices, as well as a T-shaped trigger, with which you can quickly remove the contents without spilling it. Some of these models also have a side graduation, which is designed to measure small volumes of urine, which may be necessary for diagnosis.
The main positive characteristic of the instruments of the type "standard" is their relatively low cost. In such models, direct trigger valve. In order to remove the contents from such an urinal, it is necessary to perform translational-reciprocal movements of this mechanism again and again, which is fraught with unhygienic consequences in the form of urine spatter.
Wearable or leg urinals are intended for patients who do not spend all their time in the supine position. There are several basic requirements for such devices. First of all, they should guarantee freedom of movement and relative comfort, and should not be too allocated under clothing. Such devices are also divided into conventional and improved.
Improved models have a T-shaped tap, with which you can display the contents without risking spilling it.
In addition, on the side of the device that comes into contact with the skin, there is a special soft lining to avoid irritation. Also, such models come with special ties with which they are mounted on the foot, or with a belt.
The indisputable advantage of standard models is the lower cost, but the tap is straight and both sides are made of the same material, polyvinyl chloride, without linings that prevent the possibility of skin irritation.
Recommendations for the care of reusable urinals
Some patients have to use a urinal around the clock throughout their lives. In order to avoid complications that may arise due to the constant presence of this device on the patient’s body, it is necessary to follow certain recommendations.
- The urinal bag should always be lower than the bladder.
- Ensure that the drainage pipes are not twisted.
- When you go to bed, fix the adaptation bag to the bed.
- Keep all valves and tubes tightly closed.
- Remember about personal hygiene and hand washing.
- Drink plenty of fluids to lower your urine concentration.
Features of children's urinals
The main purpose of children's urinals is to provide a comfortable collection of urine from babies. This device makes life easier for young parents who are well aware of the problem of collecting tests and how difficult it is to “guess” the moment when their child wants to use the toilet. To date, urine pads for infants help to solve this pressing problem, with the help of which it is possible to collect the necessary amount of urine for analysis without problems and stress for babies and their parents.
The urinals for babies are a regular bag with a hole that is attached to the baby’s skin with Velcro.
In use, such a device is absolutely safe and does not threaten the slightest discomfort for the baby, especially if you use models that take into account the anatomical features of infants of different sexes.
Bags for children's urine containers are made of polyethylene. With the help of Velcro, the device is securely fixed on the skin, as a result of which all urine enters the bag. On the bag there is a markup, which makes it possible to control whether enough material has been collected for analysis. Standard children's models are designed to collect up to 100 milliliters of liquid.
Many parents are concerned about the fact that the Velcro, with which the device is attached to the skin, can cause the baby pain, discomfort or irritation.
However, in fact, it is absolutely safe due to the use of a special adhesive composition, which does not contain any harmful substances. After the urine collector fulfills its function, it can be easily removed, and there will be no residue on the baby’s skin.
Separately, mention should be made of nozzles on the opening of the packet, taking into account the peculiarities of the anatomical structure of the representatives of either sex.
In total, there are three varieties of children's urinals:
- for boys;
- for girls;
Universal are urinals with oval holes. They are suitable for babies of both sexes. However, the use of specialized mochesbornikov is more comfortable. For boys, the hole has an ovoid shape pointed downward, and for girls it is more rounded, with branches on the sides.
How to use a baby urinal
No special skills are required to collect urine for analysis using a children's urine bag. Nevertheless, not all parents manage to carry out this manipulation on the first attempt, therefore it is better to purchase several urine containers at the pharmacy at once so that there is something to practice on.
The sequence of actions should be as follows. First of all, wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water. In order to ensure sterility, you can use medical gloves.
Print the urinal and straighten the bag. Prepare your baby for the procedure. His skin should be dry and clean. Remove the protective layer from the velcro and attach the garbage bag to the baby’s skin. It is necessary to arrange it in such a way that the urethra is inside the package. Glue the tool.
Many kids have a restless character and heightened curiosity. In order to play it safe and avoid unpleasant consequences if the “playful hands” of the child get to the urinal, you can put on a baby diaper. However, this should be done very carefully so that the device does not move.
After the baby does all its business, remove the bag, peeling it off from the skin. Cut the corner of the bag and pour the contents into a jar for analysis. You can also deliver the contents to the lab right in the urinal.
Please note that the same bag should not be kept glued to the skin for more than an hour. If after this time the baby did not go to the toilet, change the urinal.