Cod is a marine fish of the cod family. It has a greenish-brown color with brown spots and a white abdomen.
The size of the cod depends on its age: the length reaches 1.8 - 2 meters, while the mass of fish caught varies from 4 to 12 kilograms. This fish has a mustache on the chin, three dorsal and two ventral fins without spiny rays, mobile intermaxillary, maxillary bones. Its scales are cycloid, gills comb.
According to the structure of the fins, the representatives of the cod-like family are similar to the carp-like, and in the position of the ventral fins, they are similar to the perciform.
For over a thousand years, cod plays an important role in the history of Europe and America. The Vikings who lived in the Lofoten Islands consumed dried fish. Immediately after the catch, it was hanged in an open, well-ventilated area, after three months the carcasses were beaten until the meat was soft and edible. Such nutritious food was stored for a long time, which was ideal for a wandering tribe.
Then the fish gained popularity in Europe because of religious motives: unlike meat, it could be eaten during fasting.
In the period from 1958 to 1976, a diplomatic conflict arose due to cod. The reason for the controversy was the introduction by the first state of the economic 200-mile zone around the island, which prohibited fishing in Icelandic waters, where British fishermen threw nets.
Interestingly, the maximum mass of the largest cod caught in history was 96 kilograms.
The fish habitat covers the Atlantic Ocean (Baltic, White Sea, Arctic cod). In the east of the Atlantic, it is distributed from Spitsbergen and the Barents Sea to the Bay of Biscay, in the west - from Greenland to Cape Hatteras. In particular, it lives in the Norwegian Sea, the Pacific Ocean, off the coast of Iceland. Interestingly, under the trade name cod, only two species of fish are most often found - Pacific and Atlantic. The Baltic, White Sea, Greenland are in less demand.
Cod is able to withstand low temperatures (from minus 1 degree Celsius and below). Her life span reaches 25 years.
The young individual feeds on mollusks, small crustaceans. At the same time, by the age of three, she becomes a real predator and begins to eat other fish: capelin, pollock, herring, her own young. For the extraction of cod, fixed and purse seines, snurrevods, bottom and pelagic trawls, longlines are used.
This is a prolific fish, which begins to lay offspring in March-April, making lengthy 1,500 kilometer migrations to places of spawning. Cod spawns in the water column, its amount can reach up to 2 million in a few weeks.
In 1992, the government of Canada imposed a moratorium on fishing because of a sharp reduction in the number of individuals and the threat of complete extinction of the species. This is the most important commercial fish, which is the raw material for the manufacture of canned food, a source of valuable fish oil.
Major exporters of cod: Canada, Denmark, Great Britain, Norway, Russia, Iceland.
The meat of cod fish is very dietary: 100 kilograms of product contains 82 kilocalories, and the set of nutrients is extensive and impressive (see p. "Chemical Composition").
Effect on the human body:
- It gives strength, accelerates the recovery of the body after illness.
- Increases immunity.
- Strengthens teeth and bones.
- Lowers cholesterol, normalizes heart function.
- Favorably affects mental activity, improves the supply of oxygen to the brain.
- Strengthens the structure of the hair fiber, gives strength to the nail plate.
- Improves the condition of the skin, joints.
- It stabilizes mood, calms the nervous system.
According to research by British scientists, cod fat inhibits the activity of enzymes that cause the destruction of cartilage, blocks the transmission of a painful impulse to the brain.
At least 3-4 times a week, fish should be on the menu for people who suffer from:
- vitamin deficiency;
- disorders of the musculoskeletal system;
- diseases of the brain, heart;
- frequent colds;
- depression, emotional breakdowns, nervous disorders.
Due to the abundance of vitamins B12, D, carotene and unsaturated omega-3 acids, cod is recommended for women throughout the entire period of pregnancy and breastfeeding. At the same time, doctors recommend gradually introducing meat, liver and fish caviar into the diet of children from three years old.
Contraindications for use:
- individual intolerance;
- cholelithiasis or urolithiasis.
Do not combine fish intake with dairy products, as this can lead to indigestion and disruption of the digestive tract.
This is an expensive northern delicacy, which owes its popularity to a bright individual taste, unique properties, high nutritional value, and compatibility with numerous dishes. It can be eaten as an independent product or combined with stews, mashed soups, salads and sandwiches.
The main distinguishing feature of cod liver is the absence of heat treatment during canning. Interestingly, for the manufacture of most canned food, fish is boiled, pickled or smoked. This leads to a partial or complete loss of vitamins, macro- and microelements. Cod liver is laid in jars exclusively in its raw form and is poured with its own fat. Due to this, the active substances of the offal and piquant taste are preserved throughout the shelf life of the product.
The energy value of canned cod liver reaches 613 calories, the amount of B: W: Y is 3%: 96%: 1% per 100 grams of product.
What is the benefit of offal?
- Improves vision, sharpen the perception of light rays in the dark.
- Protects the body from carcinogenesis.
- It supports the coordinated work of the endocrine system, the normal state of the joints.
- Normalizes metabolic processes in cartilage, bone tissue.
- Promotes the full functioning of the circulatory system, increases hemoglobin.
- Strengthens the walls of blood vessels, prevents the development of anemia, atherosclerosis, cancerous tumors, rickets.
- Improves skin condition, smoothes wrinkles
Who needs to eat cod liver?
This by-product is equally useful for children, adolescents, mature and elderly people. However, most of all, athletes and persons suffering from:
- increased blood coagulation;
- diseases of joints, bones;
- vitamin deficiency;
- inflammatory processes of internal organs;
- high content of "bad" cholesterol;
- heart problems.
Remember, 40 grams of canned cod liver per day covers the daily requirement of the body for healthy fatty acids, compensates for the lack of vitamins necessary to maintain normal functioning of the body, and prevents the development of Alzheimer's disease, arrhythmias and physical exhaustion.
The disadvantages of fish offal include high calorie content, so people who are overweight should abandon its use.
When buying canned food, pay attention to the inscription on the bank. The “right” product will have the label “premium” indicating GOST, confirming the conservation of cod liver according to the technology regulated by the state. Pay attention to the composition of the product. Cod liver canned in its own juice and no other oil can be used in its preparation. The presence of "extraneous" ingredients (flavors, colorants, stabilizers, flavor enhancers) in the composition indicates the introduction of harmful chemical additives into the product. Refuse to purchase such a product.
Cod is an ideal fish for people who follow the figure and count calories. It contains a minimum of fat with a maximum amount of nutrients (vitamins, minerals, phospholipids). In dense white fish meat, 19% protein and 0.4% beneficial triglycerides are concentrated.
|Name||Content in 100 grams of product, milligrams|
|Meat (boiled)||Liver (canned)|
|Calorie content||69 calories||613 calories|
|Water||82.1 grams||26.4 grams|
|Fats||0.6 gram||65.7 grams|
|Squirrels||16 grams||4.2 grams|
|Cholesterol||0.04 grams||0.25 grams|
|Ash||1.3 grams||2.3 grams|
|Saturated Fatty Acids||0.1 gram||10.6 grams|
|Organic acids||0||0.2 grams|
|Mono- and disaccharides||0||1.2 grams|
The energy value of cod depends on the method of its culinary processing: salted - 98 kcal, stewed - 101 kcal, fried - 111 kcal, hot smoked - 115 kcal, from the grill - 172 kcal. Fresh fish can be purchased exclusively at the point of catch, since its meat is not adapted for long transport, in other cases it is immediately frozen, salted.
|Name||Content in 100 grams of product, milligrams|
|Meat (boiled)||Liver (canned)|
|Folic Acid (B9)||0,0013||0,11|
|Ascorbic acid (C)||1||3,4|
Remember, cod can accumulate arsenic and mercury, which cause poisoning of the body. Safe is considered fish caught off the coast of Alaska.
According to the nutritional properties, cod roe is not inferior to red and black. It is used for making sandwiches, salads, sauces, snacks. Caviar is made from mature cod ostrich using vegetable oil and sodium benzoate. It goes on sale in finished canned form.
Cod roe is a valuable delicacy, a source of vitamins A, B, C, D, phosphorus, sodium, calcium, iodine, potassium. In addition, the product contains omega-3 amino acids that are essential for the human body. It is interesting that the degree of protein assimilation in the eggs of cod fish is 2 times higher than the representatives of the livestock sector. It gives strength to people with low vitality (old people suffering from nervous disorders, stress), restores impaired metabolism, supports the thyroid gland.
It is believed that cod caviar has a beneficial effect on the body of a pregnant woman: it develops high intellectual abilities in the baby.
Despite its many advantages, it cannot be eaten daily, as it contains salt and can lead to the formation of kidney stones.
The nutritional value of cod caviar is 115 calories per 100 grams of product, the ratio B: W: U is 42%: 55%: 2%.
The use of fish in cooking
The cod meat is non-greasy, tasteful, white. In salads, boiled or smoked fish fillet in harmony with radish, herbs, apples. Cod is very popular in the cuisines of the world. It is used to prepare snacks, mashed soups, casseroles and pie fillings. And also baked on the grill, dried, smoked, canned, fried, boiled and served as an independent dish.
To preserve vitamins, macro- and microelements, cod is recommended to be steamed. When buying, pay attention to the condition of the carcass. Frozen fish during cooking will be watery and tasteless.
Sea fish has a characteristic strong smell, which intensifies during heat treatment, so you need to boil it in water with the addition of a large number of spices, roots (onions, celery, parsley) or sprinkle with lemon juice first.
Without loss of useful properties, chilled cod is stored in the refrigerator for three days, frozen - in the freezer for up to six months. So that the fish does not boil during cooking, boil it in water with cucumber brine at the rate of a liter of liquid per 80 milliliters of salting.
Permissible cod substitutions in dishes: hake, pollock, haddock.
In modern cooking, this variety of fish is actively used in salads, casseroles. In India, it is pickled in vinegar with local spices, then fried over an open fire. In Russia, a fish salad is prepared with radishes, herbs, green sour apples, seasoned with mayonnaise, in Scandinavia with mustard, dill, onions, sour cream, in America with peanut butter, cinnamon, white pepper, noodles, ginger, head lettuce, soy sauce, noodles. In Europe, cod is baked in grilled honey mustard glaze.
The meat of cod fish is dietary and is recommended for use by patients with pancreatitis. Unlike pork, lamb, veal, poultry, there are no rough fascia and tendons in it; it is gentle and easily digestible. With minimal culinary effort, a codfish can be made into a puree-like dish, which is especially important for a pancreatitis diet, which involves chopping all food products to protect the digestive system.
It is allowed to eat fish during the period of remission and exacerbation of the disease from the second week of the attack. It is boiled, steamed, served in the form of meatballs, meatballs, souffle, knels, meatballs. In addition to dishes prepared from minced cod, during the period of remission it is allowed to eat fish in whole (baked, stewed, steamed). It produces nutritious casseroles and pies that will help diversify the patient's diet.
Fish knelles are recommended to be served with vegetable, cereal side dishes, and vegetarian soups. In chronic pancreatitis, animal meat is replaced with cod, which is allowed to be consumed no more than 3 times a week. At the same time, the following fish dishes are prohibited: canned food, liver, aspic and broths that stimulate gastric, pancreatic secretion. In addition, refuse to take dried, smoked, salted cod.
Remember, the most healthy fish is fresh. It should have a strong, elastic surface, be moderately shiny, give off a marine smell. The presence of yellowish stains on the carcass, damage, fetid spirit indicate prolonged storage of the product on the shelves of the store, which was subjected to repeated freezing. Refuse to consume such fish.
The maximum daily serving of cod for a patient with pancreatitis is 200 grams.
How to cook cod?
Before cooking, cut off the head, tail, fins of the fish, gut and rinse it. If necessary, cut into pieces, re-rinse under water. When buying frozen cod, be sure to defrost the carcass before cooking in the refrigerator naturally. When using a microwave oven, hot water, the fish will lose its taste and consistency.
You can cook the cod in whole or in slices (in portions). However, the finer the fish is cut, the less nutrients in it will remain after heat treatment. Cod is cooked in a conventional pan, double boiler, slow cooker, pressure cooker.
Recommendations for the preparation of sea fish:
- You can lay cod both in cold water and in hot. In the first case, there is a guarantee that the stiff fish meat is cooked evenly.
- When laying cod in an ordinary pan, water should completely cover its surface.
- After defrosting, meat should not be re-frozen.
- You can cook fish under a closed or open lid.
- To enhance the taste of cod, add cucumber pickle, tomato paste, citric acid, salt, carrots, onions, peppers or spices to the water.
- Fish is boiled exclusively in gutted form.
- Throughout the entire period of cod preparation, constantly monitor the fire: at first it should be strong, when the water boils, reduce it to an average level, reduce it in the final stage so that it is weak.
- To maintain the structure of the fish in boiling water, add 15 milliliters of vegetable oil.
- In the absence of suitable kitchen equipment, you can cook cod in a deep pan, periodically adding water. In this case, the process of preparing sea fish will not differ from the traditional method.
The duration of cod cooking depends on the size of the carcass (sliced) and averages 15 minutes. Small pieces will reach readiness in 5 minutes. The fastest way to cook fish is in a pressure cooker. And the time of its preparation in a double boiler, slow cooker will not differ in any way from heat treatment in a conventional pan. The readiness of cod can be checked on the basis of two factors: the ease of separation of the fillet from the skin and bones, the degree of meatiness of the meat.
Remember, regardless of the size of the portion, the fish boiled for the baby is cooked for at least 20 minutes, then crushed to a creamy state and carefully checked for the presence of cartilage, bones.
Classic recipe for cod with vegetables
- cod - 1 carcass;
- carrots - 1 piece;
- lemon - 0.5 pieces;
- potatoes - 8 pieces;
- onions - 1 piece;
- rosemary - 2.5 grams (0.5 teaspoon)
- olive oil - 45 milliliters (3 tablespoons);
- black allspice, salt to taste.
- To clean the carcass from the scales, remove the insides, cut off the head, rinse.
- Cut the back diagonally with a sharp knife.
- Grind pepper and salt in a mortar. Coat the cod with the resulting mixture inside and out.
- Insert slices of lemon into the cuts.
- Cover the baking sheet with foil, put fish on it.
- Peel potatoes, onions, carrots and cut into strips or rings.
- Sprinkle the vegetables with olive oil, salt and lay on both sides of the cod, sprinkle with rosemary.
- Cover the dish on top with foil, put in a preheated oven for 40 minutes, set the temperature to 180 degrees. Cook until soft potatoes.
- When serving, garnish with herbs.
Cod casserole with rice
- cod fillet - 400 grams;
- cream - 100 grams;
- rice - 250 grams;
- tomato sauce - 250 grams;
- hard cheese - 150 grams;
- an egg - 2 pieces.
- Slice cod fillet in portions.
- Boil rice until half-cooked, grate 100 grams of cheese, combine these ingredients.
- Place half of the resulting mass in a baking dish, then distribute the fish on the surface, cover the cod with the remaining mass from above.
- Grate 50 grams of cheese on a coarse grater.
- Boil hard-boiled eggs, chop. Combine with grated cheese, sprinkle on top.
- Mix cream and tomato sauce, pour the casserole. If desired, the dish can be sprinkled with breadcrumbs, and add onions and cabbage to the rice-cheese mixture.
- Preheat the oven, bake 15 minutes at 180 degrees. Serve hot.
Cod-based dishes are delicious, light and hearty. They can be eaten for dinner along with fresh vegetables and herbs.
Cod is a fleshy fish with dense flesh and an easy burden of bones. It contains a unique set of nutrients, which, according to American clinical studies, improve the functioning of the nervous system, help metabolism, strengthen immunity, lower blood pressure, and reduce the formation of blood clots in arteries.
Nutritionists recommend eating fish twice a week. If these proportions are observed, the risk of stroke decreases by 2 times. However, if you increase the frequency of consumption to a double dose per day, the risk of cerebral hemorrhage increases as much.
To prevent the development of Alzheimer's disease, osteoporosis, oncology, rickets, vitamin deficiency, it is recommended to use cod fat.