Tartaric acid (tartaric, tartaric, dioxinosuccinic) is a dibasic organic substance, the molecule of which includes two asymmetric carbon atoms.
The compound is widespread in the plant world, found in the form of free isomers and acid salts.
The main source of tartaric acid is ripe grape fruit. The substance is released during the fermentation of a berry drink, forming sparingly soluble potassium salts called tartar.
The food additive is registered under the code E334, it is obtained from the secondary products of wine processing (yeast, chalky sediments, tartaric acid lime).
Chemical and physical properties
Dioxy succinic acid is a hygroscopic crystals without color and odor, with a pronounced acidic taste. These compounds are soluble in water and ethyl alcohol, practically insoluble in ether, benzene, aliphatic hydrocarbons.
The chemical formula of the substance is C4H6O6.
Tartaric acid, due to the equilibrium and symmetrical arrangement of hydroxyl residues, hydrogen ions, acid carboxyls, occurs in nature in the form of four isomers.
Varieties of additives E334:
- D - tartaric acid (tartaric).
- L is tartaric acid.
- Mesovic acid (antivic).
- Grape acid (a mixture of equal volumes of l - and d - tartaric acids).
All forms of dioxin amber substance are identical in chemical properties, but differ in physical parameters. So, the melting point of l - and d - tartaric acids is - 140 degrees, grape - 240 - 246 degrees, mesovin - 140 degrees. Moreover, the water solubility of the first two compounds is much higher than that of the last two.
Tartaric acid forms two types of salts: medium and acid. Compounds of the first type are highly soluble in water, and in solutions of caustic alkali form Rochelle crystals. Monosubstituted acid salts are hardly soluble in liquids, including wine and alcoholic beverages. Therefore, they settle on the walls of the tank, from where they are extracted to produce organic acid. In addition to grape juice, tartar is present in nectars with pulp and fruit pastes.
Properties and daily requirement
Tartaric acid is found in sour berries and fruits. Its maximum concentration is concentrated in grapes, apples, cherries, tangerines, avocados, oranges, lime, black currants, gooseberries, sweet cherries, pomegranates, quinces, lingonberries, papaya, rhubarb. With a balanced diet, the daily need for an element is fully covered.
For normal functioning of the body, women daily need 13 - 15 milligrams of tartaric acid, men - 15 - 20 milligrams, children - 5 - 12 milligrams.
The need for a dioxant compound increases with increased radiation background, stress, and digestive tract dysfunction associated with a decrease in gastric acidity.
The biological significance of tartaric acid:
- protects body cells from oxidation;
- increases the rate of metabolic processes;
- reacts with radioactive elements, accelerating their excretion from the body;
- dilates blood vessels;
- increases the elasticity and firmness of the skin;
- potentiates collagen synthesis;
- tones up the heart muscle.
Given that tartaric acid is toxic, the consumption of high concentrations of the reagent is fraught with the development of symptoms of overdose: vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, paralysis and death. The use of 7.5 grams of compound per kilogram of weight is fatal.
In order not to harm your health, you can increase the consumption of the substance only after consulting with your doctor, especially if you have a predisposition to herpes, you are the owner of sensitive skin or the mechanism of absorption of fruit acids is broken.
The use of additives E334
Due to the fact that tartaric acid slows down the decay and decay of products, the compound is widely used in the food industry. It prevents premature spoilage of canned and flour products. The raw materials for the manufacture of additive E334 are waste generated by the production of wine drinks.
Tartaric acid is used as an acidity regulator and antioxidant in the manufacture of canned foods, confectionery and bakery products, table water, and alcoholic beverages. In addition, the wine substrate is used to loosen the dough, to fix whipped proteins, to preserve the plasticity and whiteness of chocolate glaze. Food supplement E334 helps soften the alcohol “bitterness” of wine products, giving them a pleasant tart flavor.
Other uses of tartaric acid.
- Pharmaceuticals In medicine, the substance is used as an auxiliary component in the creation of soluble drugs, effervescent tablets and laxatives.
- Cosmetology. Additive E334 is a part of professional peelings, creams, lotions, shampoos intended for skin and hair care.
- Textile industry. A wine agent is used to fix color after dyeing fabrics.
- Analytical chemistry. Tartaric acid salts are used to detect sugars and aldehydes in chemical solutions, and to separate the racemates of organic compounds into isomers.
- Building. The reagent is added to cement or gypsum mixtures to slow the solidification of the mass.
- Electrical Engineering Due to the piezoelectric properties, Segnetov’s salt (tetrahydrate of double potassium sodium salt of tartaric acid) is used in the manufacture of microphones, loudspeakers and computers.
In addition, the organic compound is used to remove rusty stains from white clothing. For this, rock salt and reagent E334 are mixed in equal proportions. Then the mixture is diluted with water to obtain a thick mass, applied to the stain. To enhance the "effect", the thing is placed under the direct rays of the sun, waiting for the disappearance of the problem area on the fabric. After that, the product is rinsed in cold water, and then thoroughly washed in a warm soapy solution.
Tartaric acid in cosmetology
The additive E334, in concentrated form, is used in cosmetology as a professional cleanser for wine peeling.
Dioxy succinic acid gently dissolves dead skin cells of the cornea without causing burns and mechanical injuries.
The results of applying wine peeling:
- reduces the effect of "orange peel";
- smoothes facial wrinkles;
- activates the mechanisms of removal of damaged epidermal cells (exfoliation);
- “evens out” the skin texture;
- brightens age spots and complexion;
- gives the skin elasticity and smoothness;
- stimulates the formation of new elastin and collagen fibers;
- reduces the production of sebaceous secretion;
- tightens pores;
- moisturizes the deep layers of the skin.
Considering that component E334 potentiates the intensification of the whitening and exfoliating effects, it is advisable to use it for toning and brightening all skin types, especially with enhanced pigmentation, thickening of the stratum corneum, and signs of photoaging.
Tartaric acid has powerful antioxidant properties: "binds" free radicals, slows the natural aging of the dermis. In addition, peeling based on it is used as a preparatory procedure before mechanical facial cleansing, sunbathing, and cosmetic wraps (anti-cellulite, tonic, anti-aging).
Contraindications to acid cleansing:
- pregnancy, breastfeeding;
- individual intolerance to the reagent;
- dermatitis, eczema, lichen;
- parasitic infestations;
- acute inflammatory and infectious diseases of the body;
- recent hair removal, shaving;
- education on the skin to be treated;
- wounds, abrasions, scratches;
- fresh tan;
- decreased blood coagulation.
The best time for peeling is winter or early spring (until the active sun appears).
So, tartaric acid is a multifunctional plant compound with pronounced antioxidant and biostimulating properties. The main natural sources of the substance are grapes and citrus fruits. When ingested, the acid “fights” free radicals, accelerates the metabolism of essential substances, and increases the elasticity of the skin. Due to its unique properties, it is widely used in the food industry, cosmetology, electroplating, winemaking, medicine, metallurgy and analytical chemistry.